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Field-trip to epithermal and VMS mineralizations of the Rhodope Metallogenic Province (Greece-Bulgaria)
Field-trip to epithermal and VMS mineralizations of the Rhodope Metallogenic Province (Greece-Bulgaria)
On 15th and 16th October 2016 the AUTH SEG Student Chapter organized a field trip in Southern Bulgaria and Northeastern Greece (Fig. 1). A group of 20 members of the chapter, using 2 nine-seat vehicles and one car, visited a number of ore deposits of the Rhodope Metallogenic Province. The field trip was organized by Efi Petika, 2015-16 Chapter’s secretary, with the guidance of the Assistant Professor Vasilios Melfos, Academic Advisor of the chapter. In total 12 undergraduate students, 6 MSc students and 2 PhD students participated at this field trip.
The field trip was focused on three significant ore deposits of Southern Rhodope Core Complex and on the abandoned processing plant of the Kirki mine (Thrace, Greece). The Tertiary Rhodope Metallogenic Province belongs to the Western Tethyan Metallogenic Belt and spreads to Bulgaria and Greece hosting several major ore deposits of various types. The AUTH SEG student chapter visited Ada Tepe, a sedimentary-hosted low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit that in the present is operated by “Dundee Precious Metals”, the Perama Hill deposit, a high- and intermediate-sulfidation Au-Ag-Te-Se epithermal system owned by “Eldorado Gold”, the Xylagani Mesozoic gold-bearing Fe-Cu VMS deposit and the abandoned processing plant near Kirki of Alexandroupolis (Fig .1). The field trip was a great opportunity for the students to visit deposits of a great scientific importance, near our host Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Furthermore, they got familiar with the regional geology, the ore deposit types and their ore paragenesis, and had the chance to explore the specific metallogenic and the structural control processes of these deposits.
The field trip started early in the morning, on Saturday 15th October 2016, with three vehicles from Thessaloniki (Greece) to Krumovgrad (Bulgaria). After approximately 5 hours we arrived at the offices of “Dundee Precious Metals” in Krumovgrad. At our arrival the chief geologists of the company, Yaroslav Dintchev and Tsvetana Jeleva, waited for us and lead us to the presentation room, where we attended a presentation by Y. Dintchev about the activities of the mining company, the regional geology, the mining history of Ada Tepe deposit and its metallogenic and structural characteristics. Ada Tepe is a sedimentaryhosted detachment-associated low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit. It is hosted in Maastrichtian–Paleocene sedimentary rocks above a detachment fault at the contact with the underlying Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Dating of the ore mineralizing processes revealed older ages than the adjacent magmatic rocks. Gold mineralization is located in: (1) a massive, tabular ore body above the detachment fault; and (2) open space filling ores along predominantly east–west oriented listric faults. The ores are zones of intensive silicification and brecciation synchronous with the detachment faulting.
After the end of the presentation session, we discussed our questions and then visited the drilling cores (Fig. 2) where we could observe the ore minerals (including visible gold!), the ore textures (breccias, colloform, bladed and banded textures), the hydrothermal alterations (mainly alunite) and the host rocks.
After fruitful discussions with the two geologists we moved to the Ada Tepe hill with the company’s vehicles. We were excited with the prehistoric gold mines since 3rd millennium BC. The mineralization with an intense silification was formed at the hanging wall of a long impressive detachment fault (Fig. 3). At this point, T. Jeleva explained us the regional geology and presented the Au and Ag grades of the deposit. We were also informed by the company geologists that the AUTH SEG student chapter was the last group visited the Ada Tepe Hill at the present situation, as in the following days the company started the infrastructures for the open pit!
Our last stop in Krumovgrad area was about a silica sinter and the breccia in the sinter mixed with sandstone of a low-sulfidation system. We really appreciate the effort of Y. Dintchev and T. Jeleva, who spent more than 6 hours with our chapter to present and explain all the details of the Ada Tepe ore deposit. We also thank the staff and the Directors of “Dundee Precious Metals” in Krumovgrad who helped in many ways this field trip in Bulgaria (Fig. 4).
Next day, on Sunday 16th October, we drove from Krumovgrad to Komotini in Greece, and then to Perama Hill deposit (Fig. 1) owned by “Eldorado Gold”. It is a high- and intermediate-sulfidation Au-Ag-Te-Se epithermal system located at the eastern margin of the Petrota graben. The mineralization forms ore veins in the Oligocene silicified and argillicaltered andesite (33.1 and 30.8 Ma) and oxidized Au-rich mineralization in the overlying Eocene sedimentary rocks (Fig. 5, 6). The mineralization consists mainly of enargite-luzonite, tennantite, Au-Ag tellurides, and native gold. The deposit evolved from an early stage silicapyrite rock and argillic alteration followed by the deposition of sulfide-, sulfosalt- and telluride-bearing quartz-barite veins and stockworks.
The proven and probable reserves are 975,000 oz Au @ 3.13 g/t and the measured and indicated resources 1,382,000 oz Au @ 3.46 g/t, whereas the inferred resources are 554,000 oz Au @ 1.96 g/t (Eldorado Gold 2016).We would like to thank “Eldorado Gold” for the permission to visit Perama Hill and for the continuous support of the AUTH SEG student chapter activities.
Our next stop was at the abandoned hydrometallurgy plant of the Kirki Pb-Zn sulfides mines, where numerous old tailing ponds and mine wastes (Fig. 7) have caused permanent problems due to acid mine drainage and the subsequent contamination of the ground water. The Kirki flotation plant operated between 1973 and 1992, without any
Environmental Impact Assessment. It comprises eight tailings ponds close to the factory at morphologically favorable locations, requiring the minimum earthworks. They were excavated along valleys or in the flat areas surrounding the two main streams (Kirkalon and Eirini streams), without taking into consideration the effects of surface water flow. We had the opportunity to see the details of the effects caused from mine wastes and hydrometallurgy products left in situ without any environmental consideration by the state and the local authorities.
Our last target was the Xylagani Mesozoic gold-bearing Fe-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit (Fig. 8). The mineralization shares many common features with the Cyprus-type mineralizations. It is hosted in Mesozoic meta-volcanic rocks (lavas and tuffs) which belong to the Circum Rhodope belt and have been metamorphosed to very low to low grade stage. Lensoidal silicified mineralized bodies are hosted in the metavolcanic rocks. On the basis of textural features, five types of mineralization are recognized: thin layered, disseminated, disseminated to massive and massive sulfide (pyrite or chalcopyrite-pyrite) mineralization as well as quartz veins poor in sulfides. The ore mineral assemblage consists of framboidal pyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite, tennantite and gold. The main gangue minerals are quartz, white mica and chlorite. VMS deposits are not so common in Greece and they are mostly of Mesozoic age. The students were introduced by the academic advisor, V. Melfos, who studied this mineralization for his PhD in early 1990’s and showed the various mineralization textures and types and their relation to the host rocks.
This field trip was a conclusion for the second year of operation of AUTH SEG student chapter. The Executive Committee would like to thank the Society of Economic Geologists for the overall support and trust provided through the 2014-2015 academic year. In addition we would like to exceptionally thank the Student Chapter Stewart R. Wallace Funding Program of the Society of Economic Geologists for the provided financial support regarding the field trip expenses. Special thanks are due to “Dundee Precious Metals” and “Eldorado Gold” for the permission to visit Ada Tepe and Perama Hill deposits, respectively.
Figure 1. Simplified map displaying the distribution of the ore deposits within the Rhodope and the Serbomacedonian metallogenic provinces in the southern Balkan peninsula. RM Rhodope Massif, SMM Serbomacedonian Massif, CRB Circum Rhodope Belt, AZ Axios (Vardar) Zone, SG Srednogorie Zone. 1. Ada Tepe; 2. Perama Hill; 3. Kirki; 4. Xylagani.
Figure 2. Drill cores from the Ada Tepe at the “Dundee Precious Metals”.
Figure 3. The AUTH SEG Student Chapter in front of the hanging wall of the detachment fault of the Ada Tepe deposit accompanied by the geologists Yaroslav Dintchev and Tsvetana Jeleva.
Figure 4. The AUTH SEG Student Chapter in front of the “Dundee Precious Metals” offices in Krumovgrad, Bulgaria.
Figure 5. The AUTH SEG student chapter in front of the Au-bearing quartz-barite veins crosscuting Eocene sandstones at the Perama Hill deposit of “Eldorado Gold”.
Figure 6. The Au-bearing sandstones of Perama hill deposit that host part of the ore mineralization.
Figure 7. The AUTH SEG student chapter with the academic advisor, Prof. V. Melfos, standing on a tailing pond with acid drainage of the abandoned hydrometallurgy plant at the Kirki mines.
Figure 8. Members of the AUTH SEG student chapter investigating the ore mineralization textures at the Xylagani VMS deposit.
Submitted on behalf of
the AUTh SEG Student Chapter Executive Committee by
Vathi Field Trip 04/09/2016
On Saturday 9th April 2016, the members of the S.E.G. Student Chapter of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki visited the Cu-Au±U±Mo porphyry system of Vathi, in northern Greece. The Vathi porphyry belongs at the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic belt, and extends around two hills named Ragian 1 and Ragian 2, in Kilkis province. The main host rock is of trachydacite type which was affected by a hydrothermal alteration attributed to the intrusion of a subvolcanic quartz-monzonite stock. A phreatomagmatic breccia exhibits the highest concetrations of Au, Cu, U and Mo. The ore mineralization occurs as stockworks, sheeted veins as well as pyrite D-veins. The ore mineral parageneses of the porphyry system are mainly chalcopyrite-bornite-molybdenite-magnetite and chalcopyrite-pyrite-magnetite±stibnite which are followed by vein-type pyrite-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite and sphalerite-galena±arsenopyrite assemblages.
Leader of the field trip was Christos Stergiou, M.Sc. student at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, who has just completed his Master Thesis on the Vathi porphyry system which was partly funded by the S.E.G funding programs. This one-day field trip was organized by Janja Michailovich and Eftychia Petika (2015-2016 president and secretary of the chapter respectively) and supervised and co-organized by Vasilios Melfos, Assist. Professor and Academic Advisor of the A.U.Th. S.E.G. Student Chapter.
Secretary of A.U.Th. S.E.G Student Chapter
Figure 1 The Vathi trachydacite
Figure 2 Ore vein with malachite encrustation in the porphyry, an dthe members of the AUTH SEG Student Chapter.
Figure 3 The 31 members of the chapter who participated at the field trip standing at the top of the Vathi porphyry system.
First Aid training by team “RESCUE GR” 04/16/2016
The “RESCUE GR” is a voluntary rescue and humanitarian organization based in Thessaloniki, N. Greece. Together with the A.U.Th. S.E.G. Student Chapter, we co-organized a free First Aid training for outdoor accidents, for the members of the chapter. The training was conducted on Saturday 16th April 2016 at the National Stadium of Thessaloniki and the participants were trained in providing first aid in cases which may occur in the countryside as wounds, stings from insects and reptiles, stroke, bone fractures etc.
The seminar was successful. The members did practice with each other on how to tie a bandage on various parts of the body. In the end, all the information which the rescue team gave to us remained in our minds.
We would like to thank “RESCUE GR” and the “National Kaftatzoglio Stadium” for the unique experience and knowledge they gave to us!
Vice-President of A.U.Th. S.E.G. Student Chapter
Figure 1 Members of the team preparing the tie of a bandage
Figure 2 A commemorative photo of the members of AUTh SEG Student Chapter and RESCUE GR team
The 2nd official meeting of the AUTh SEG Student Chapter was held at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh) on 12th December 2014, as part of the effort of the Student Chapter to promote Economic Geology and the interaction between academia and industry.
Four very interesting, different and of various sub-disciplines topics were elaborated in this event. Ourania Toumanidou, MSc student at AUTh, presented the results of her diploma thesis “Formation conditions of hypogene caves in N. Greece through the study of fluid inclusions” (Fig. 1). Afetwards, Efi Petika, MSc student as well, discussed the results of her diploma thesis about “Study of the tourmaline composition in pegmatite veins in Gerakini, Chalkidiki” (Fig. 2). Finally at this first part of the Thessaloniki event, Janja Mihajlovic, MSc student as well, presented her research done during her diploma thesis concerning the “Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical study of the silicified sediments related with the ophiolite complex at Triadi of Thessaloniki, N. Greece” (Fig. 3).
During the second part of the meeting Mr. Theodore Veligrakis, exploration geologist in Hellas Gold S.A., shared his experience on the “Exploration methods for Au-rich ore deposits” and classified the various techniques according to the ore mineralization types. He also presented a case study about the new discovered carbonate replacement ore deposit related with an epithermal system at Perama South in Thrace, N. Greece (Fig.4). The event ended with the members of the SEG Student Chapter studying the cores of the exploration suite from Perama South, brought especially for this event by Mr. Veligrakis (Fig. 6).
It is worth noting that the event wouldn’t be so perfectly organized without the precious contribution of Dr. Thomas Sant, Exploration Manager of Eldorado Gold in Athens, Greece, who is highly appreciated.
Review of the first training workshop of AUTh SEG Student Chapter
On Thursday 19th and Friday 20th February 2015 the first training workshop of the AUTh SEG Student Chapter took place in collaboration with the mining company Hellas Gold S.A. which operates at Chalkidiki, N. Greece.
The first day was devoted to the core logging of exploratory wells. Sixteen students members of the Chapter participated with the support of Hellas Gold S.A. mainly for the transportation from Thessaloniki to the mines. The program included a visit to the exploration department of Hellas Gold S.A. in the area of Madem Lakos mine, where the participants were initially informed through a series of presentations (Fig. 1,2) for the existing projects in NE Chalkidiki, as well as for the potential future mining targets. That was followed by a theoretical and practical description of the core logging projects from Fisoka, Skouries and Olympias deposits. The practical session was held with the assistance of the company’s geologists Grigoris Thermos, Theodoros Veligrakis, Nikos Nestorov and Pavlos Tsitsanis (Fig. 3). As the interest was undiminished by both sides the study was accompanied by exercises, many questions and a constructive dialogue (Fig. 4).
The first day of the workshop was completed with a bus tour through the old and new under construction infrastructures of Madem Lakos mine.
On 20th February, the second part of the workshop was held at the Department Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, with more than 25 participants, all members of the local SEG Student Chapter. The presentation was about the use of the 3D design and modeling of a mine during the exploration and exploitation stages. The geologist Mr. Lazaros Dalampiras of Hellas Gold S.A. was the main lecturer and presented the use and the capabilities of the Datamine Studio 3 computer program, introducing his experience of the Mavres Petres mine in Chalkidiki. The high level of the presentation along with the many questions and the interest of the participants successfully completed the two days workshop (Fig. 5).
Finally, the organizing committee and the members of the student chapter would like to thank Dr. Thomas Sant, Exploration Manager of the “Eldorado Gold” for Greece, Dr. Steven Hunns, District Exploration Manager of Hellas Gold S.A. and Mr. Scott Randall, Exploration Geologist of Hellas Gold S.A., for their decisive kindly provided contribution. Wishing good luck to our new collaborative efforts, we look forward to the next workshop targeting to promote and diffuse of the scientific knowledge, as well as the collaboration and communication between the academic and private sectors.